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, Creali\)e 

^Onian A quarterly. Governors State University, Park Forest South, IL 60466. 

Vol. 4, No. 1 SUMMER 1980 

A quarterly published at Governors State University under the auspices of the Provost's Office 

1980, Governors State University and Helen Hughes 

Helen E. Hughes, Editor 
Lynn Thomas Strauss, Managing Editor 
Joan Lewis, Editorial Consultant 
Suzanne Oliver, Graphic Designer 

Bethe Hagens 
Joan Lewis 

Donna Bandstra. Social Sciences 

Rev Ellen Dohner. Religion 

Rita Durrant. League of American Penwomen 

Dottie Fisk, Children's Creativity 

Harriet Gross, Sociology I Women's Studies 

Helene Guttman, Biological Sciences 

Mimi Kaplan. Library Resources 

Shirley Katz. M usic I Literature 

Young Kim, Com m unications Science 

Harriet Marcus. Journalism 

Elizabeth Ohm, Library Resources 

Betye Saar, Fine Arts 

Marjone Sharp, Human Relations Services 

Sara Shumer. Political Theory 

Emily Wasiolek, Literature 



3 Introduction 

by Bethe Hagens 

4 Media Watch 

by Jean Kalwa 

6 Networking 

by Ann Weiser 


by Margaret Brady 

12 Surviving Technology 

by Nancy Hami I ton 

1 4 Remed i es 

by Loui se Howard 

17 Little Red Hen 

by Liz Archer 

18 How I Got Into Solar, And Why You 

Can't Get Me Out of My Greenhouse 
by Bethe Hagens 

23 Worms VS High Technology 
by Mary Appelhof 

29 Kirby, The Cadillac of Vacuum 

by Lucie Hagens 

33 On Chickens and Goats 
by Jean Kalwa 



Solar Gingerbread House Recipe 

Update on Soviet Feminist Journal 

Letter From Hoi land 
by Helen E. Hughes 


Cover photograph: Julie Taylor, 1977 


As you know, Joan Lewis and I are 
co-editors of this summer issue of 
The Creative Woman What lies ahead 
for you as you read through our issue 
is something intangible. We've 
thought and thought of what to cal I 
it. We've moved through "Women and 
." Ecology ; Nature; Technol- 
ogy ; Energy ; the Environment . All seem 
such massive and important ideas, so 
foreboding and ever so slightly beyond 
grasp „ They seem like things that 
Somebody has written about that we 
should quote. 

Helen got her inspiration for this 
issue from Rachel Carson, the author 
of Si lent Spring (among other things) 
who really single-handedly brought 
the complex fragility of life to the 
awareness of pol icymakers. I immedi- 
ately thought of Harriet Barlow, dubbed 
among her friends the Queen of Appro- 
priate Technology. This remarkable 
Washington lady is on so many 
environment and energy boards, 
commissions and committees that she 
can be — at one sitting — a coal it ion 
or compromise position onto herself » 
Joan thought of a special friend 
struggling with leukemia via an 
imaginative approach to diet. In 
Pogo's intimation, we were paralyzed 
by insurmountable opportunities Q 

Our inspiration came from the work 
of a child, the drawing which 
introduces our magazine to you this 
season. This simple and genuine 
statement — "I want to help, too," is 
one that Joan and I are finding 
being discussed more and more among 
the women we meet. It isn't a matter 
of traditional feminist political 
activity. It's wondering if the 
choices that we routinely make in our 
daily lives really can make a difference, 
These are the kind of creative women 
we want you to meet in our issue e 
Cumulatively, in terms of the economy, 
we believe that the effects of women's 
choices about the technologies they 
use can be a dominant social force 
and will one day be recognized as 

the lifeblood of those systems we 
call Ecology, Nature, Technology and 
the Environments, 

Bethe Hagens 
July, 1980 


From Our Paper, WestCAP, GlenwoodCHy, Wisconsin 

JEAN KALWA was a legend at Governors 
State even before she startled all of 
us by applying for, and receiving, a 
Danforth fel lowship for graduate 
studies at the University of Michigan,, 
At 47, she had charmed the socks off 
virtually every instructor she en- 
countered. She had a chame I eon- 1 i ke 
ability of finding meaning in virtually 
anything that was said or would happen. 
Since leaving GSU several years ago, 
health problems have dogged her relent- 
lessly. Still, she's only a dissertation 
away from a doctorate and her essays 
continue to make all of us laugh and 

We're printing two essays from Jean c 
The first was originally written for 
Acorn , a newspaper that she and Jim 
Laukes and I edited for several 
years. Jean served as a kind of 
cultural interpretor for our audience 
of laypeople interested in energy 
technologies. In this essay, MEDIA 
WATCH of November 1977, she pokes fun 
at the media environment and at us — 
for trusting them. 

The second (which begins on p Q 33 of 
this issue) is a letter to me. I had 
told her that Jim and I were thinking 
of raising animals (chickens, in 
particular) here in our almost-but- 
not-quite rural home that lies 
just outside any village limits. 

B H. 


by Jean Kalwa 

For years and years, PopuZaA 
Me.charu.c& has been a sort of main- 
stream Motho/t EaAth Newa— a how-to- 
f i I l-the-chinks-in-your-armor manual 
extolling the rigorous virtues of 
handymanery to that savvy yankee, 
the mythic American artisan., Overall, 
the magazine accomplishes its task 
remarkable well by providing "tips," 
advice and elaborate diagrams which 
exp lain exact I y how to repa i r a 
toilet, tune up a car or even build 
a house. 

Not quite so obvious is the sophis- 
ticated way Popu&a/i Mec/uinic6 and sim- 

ilar magazines spread a message which 
is exactly the opposite of the above Q 
They strongly reinforce and support 
the prevailing economic system, which, 
in its itch to sell us its shrink- 
wrapped, rapidly obsolescing objects, 
would erase forever the role of the 
canny tinkerer and mute his boast 
that he can fix anything with spit, 
baling wire and his own commonsense- 
based cleverness. Next time you 
pick up a PopudbaA Htchanlci , notice 
how much space is devoted to short 
descriptions of new products, to say 
nothing of whole articles which 
purport to "analyze" differences 
between automobiles, trucks or appli- 
ances. Crabby old party that I am, 
I suspect that much of this "hard" 
information springs full-blown from 
the public relations departments of 
the firms which manufacture the items. 
To be able to send out two conflicting 
messages at the same time successfully 
is a very neat trick indeed, one 
worthy of the talents of Eve I Kneivel. 

In recent years, VM has not failed 
to take note of alternative energy 
concerns, and the October 1977 issue 
is no exception. The lead article 
is a lavishly-illustrated piece 
on development of new machinery 
designed to increase U.S. coal pro- 
duction, deep-mining (as opposed to 
strip-) division. According to the 
article, coal represents 90$ of the 
U.S. fossil fuel resources and 
President Carter has called for pro- 
duction to double by 1985 c Perhaps 
you'll be amused by the author's 
style in his opening paragraphs before 
he gets down to the specifics of 
these new mining techniques. Machines 
"rip down" coal; they're "clanking, 
roaring, humming battalions of 
weaponry." They make a "rhythmic 
thumping and grinding racket." It's 
an excellent short course in how to 
make an industry that's been respon- 
sible for a good bit of human misery 
over the centuries seem as sexy and 
violent as a TV thriller. 

If only they could figure out a way 
to make the more pacific virtues of 
solar energy seem as dangerously allur- 

ing as the fossil fuels the sun takes 
so long to produce! Another article 
in the sane issue surveys a group 
of solar home owners throughout 
the nation. It's adeguately written, 
if a bit ho-hum, and wel l-i I I ustratedo 
However, learning that somebody saved 
$40 a month last winter does not evoke 
guite the same excited response as 
reading about a "bunyanesgue monster" 
which chews coal "out of here better 
than ten, maybe twelve tons a minute," 

Those interested in appropriate 
technology take their hardest lumps 
this month from a recent issue of 
Galaxy Science fiction. In his 
August column, J. Pournel le reports 
on this year's meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of 
Science with an interesting mixture 
of glowy enthusiasm sickl ied 'oer 
by gloom and despair„ On the one 
hand, Pournel le can't wait to shave 
"with power produced by deuterium- 
tritium fusion, seven years before 
the century ends," and on the other 
he's depressed because $80 million 
for fusion research was cut from the 
current Carter budget. He goes 
on to discuss the presence of 
appropriate technology representatives 
at the same meeting, whom he charac- 
terizes as a humorless bunch who 
show fuzzy slides which display 
ugliness as if it were beauty, sit 
"enraptured as if in church," and 
want, above all else, to bring back 
the privy. 

Maybe so. There's no denying 
that many folk interested in alterna- 
tive technologies are motivated by 
religious as well as strictly pragmatic 
impulses. (I wish we had more wild- 
eyed fanatics to keep things from 
getting dull.) However, I think I'll 
keep my money on those whose claims 
are relatively modest, like "our first 
principle is to do no harm" (The New 
Alchemists). Mr„ Pournel le tends to 
such feverish enthusiasms as "it's 
(fusion) in time to save the world," 
and his prose absolutely throbs with 
feeling when he talks about the need 
to hand down even more compl icated 
technological goodies to the next 


For those of us who only sit and 
read rather than muck about in the 
garage cleaning our spark plugs, 
there's the venerable KtSLantJjL 
Monthly from Boston „ "Tinkering 
with Sunshine — the Prospects for 
Solar Energy," by Tracy Kidder is 
the October cover story „ :< idder 
interviews a number of people who 
have been deeply involved in develop- 
ing solar energy for years to present 
a wel I -organized overview of the 
current solar scene for the intelligent 
but so-far-uninformed layperson. 
Kidder's conclusion is that the 
solar situation is about at the 
stage of the auto industry when 
Henry Ford introduced the Model T 
One hopeful note: Kidder makes sure 
the affluent readers of this magazine 
learn how I ittle the U.S. government 
is spending on developing solar 
options in comparison to a I locations 
for nuclear energy t 

It's the hard-boiled ingenuousness 
of AdveAttAtng Age. that makes it so 
hard to resist. I mean, do they care 
about being outrageous? That's 
their business, right? So why not 
run a full-page ad from MotheA EaAtk 
Wextfi (four color, with trendy type 
set ragged-right and stylishly 
reversed out of black). The ad tells 
potential advertisers the precise 
demographic makeup of its "responsive 
and responsible" readership. Is your 
median age 32.6? Is your median 
income $18 thousand? Are you trained 
in professional, technical or sales 
occupations or the skilled crafts? 
Then you're a typical MotheA EaAth 
HeJM subscriber. This entitles you 
to be a pigeon for any and all adver- 
tisers this highly successful 
"counterculture" publication can 

Last item for the month: The October 
20 Rotting Stone, presents another 
installment from Howard Kohn's forth- 
coming book on the Karen Silkwood 
case. Have I read it? Not yet I 'm 
scared enough already. I'm going 
to the movies. 


issues with technology. 

The term "network" is heard with such 
frequency today that one can hardly 
doubt that a new form of communication 
has lodged itself in our social habits, 
But it is almost as nebulous a con- 
cept as it is pervasive. 

In the first article in this section, 
Ann Weiser, Ph.D. in Linguistics from 
the University of Chicago, takes a 
crack at explaining networks at a 
very useful, commonsense level. 
Following her essay is a reproduction 
of several pages from Ann's personal 
networking book which we encourage 
you to xerox and try for yourself. 

In the second section, moving from 
the general to the specific, Jill 
Kunka describes her informal network- 
ing efforts as Solar Energy Outreach 
Coordinator at the Illinois Institute 
of Natural Resources. Since energy 
policy is so largely determined by 
men, it is understandable that energy 
is not seen as a women's issue. But 
by networking, Kunka has clearly 
proven otherwise. 

And finally, we have reprinted the 
network registration form from the 
National Center for Appropriate 
Technology. Why should you respond? 
This is best stated in one of the 
Center's recent publ ications, Some- 
thing Old, Something New, Something 
Borrowed, Something Due; Women and 
Appropriate Technology . Ed i tor 
Jan Zimmerman says: "To implement 
any technology without considering 
its impact on women or guaranteeing 
their participation in its develop- 
ment would condone sexist practices 
of existing problems of technological 
development." While the booklet 
(available for $1 from NCAT, P.O. 
Box 3838, Butte, MT 59701) is 
replete with observations by women 
in very different kinds of relation- 
ships with technology, the best 
part of the booklet is a networking 
directory of hundreds of women 
nationwide involved in projects 
which actively integrate women's 



by Ann Weiser 

Networking is part of a revolution- 
ary change taking place in the 
organization of our world. Not only 
are institutions changing, but the 
very form of institutions is changing, 
and the way in which each of us can 
affect, modify, participate in and 
transform the institutions of our 
world is undergoing profound change. 

In the old world, each of us had 
little control over most of the 
institutions that affected us. Control 
of the old type of institution was 
from the top down, and most of us 
were not at the top Q Governments, 
businesses, universities, and families, 
all were controlled by a kind of 
top-to-bottom power flow, where those 
above controlled those below, and 
only a few were above, many below. 
Parents controlled children, bosses 
control led workers, administrators 
controlled teachers and teachers 
control led students,. Most of one's 
life, in most of one's relationships, 
one was controlled, not controlling. 
And even when we were the controllers, 
we were impoverished by the essential 
loneliness of unequal relationships — 
* uneasy I ies the head that wears the 
crown," they say, and ultimately 
neither giving orders nor taking 
them is as satisfying as equal ity„ 

The new world has institutions of 
an entirely different shape, with 
power and control flowing up as well 
as down, so that it will eventually 
cease to make sense to talk of "up" 
or "down" at all In the last ten 
years, students have rebelled 
against their teachers, and teachers 
against their admin istrators c Child- 
ren have asserted their rights against 
the control of their parents, and 
wives have stopped promising to 

obey their husbands. Patients have 
even banded together against doctors, 
though the tyranny of the medical 
doctor has been perhaps the most 
absolute which our society has 

Also in the last ten years, alterna- 
tive institutions have sprang into 
being, with structures very different 
from the old authoritarian model 
Food co-ops, community projects, 
learning exchanges, worker-owned 
factories, all exhibit the new form, 
with decisions being made and carried 
out, not by the group and for the 
group, (as in communism, another 
old-form way of structuring authori- 
tarian control,) but by individuals 
aware of their cooperative connections 
with other individuals. 

We can begin to call these new 
institutions "networks". A network 
is a group of people connected by 
lines of two-way communication and 
organized around a particular function 
or purpose, without any one person or 
subgroup exercising central control. 
There is no geographical restriction 
on networks; members of the same 
network may be separated widely in 
space. This kind of separation, 
this freedom from the bondage of 
proximity, is made possible by the 
inventions of the electronics age: 
the two-way radio, the communications 
satel I ite.o „and above all, the 
ubiguitous telephone. With surpris- 
ingly few exceptions, it is possible 
to dial any telephone from any other 
telephone. (A Chicago newspaper 
carried a story this winter about a 
man who decided to call the Iranian 
embassy and talk to one of the 
hostages. After a six-hour wait 
while the overseas operator arranged 
for the call, he got through, and 
had a short conversation with a 
hostage who said they were unharmed — 
a fact which the rest of the country 
was desperately trying to find out Q ) 

The telephone system becomes both 
the means and the metaphor for the 
multi-sourced, multi-directional flow 
of communication and power within 

the new form of institution. The 
connection between any two telephones 
is a potential link in one or more 
networks, and becomes an actual link 
when the people at either end know 
each other's phone numbers and 
enough about each other to make 
connection possible,. The connection 
may be used freguently or rarely, 
but once it is formed it remains a 
network I ink. 

The activity of forming and 
maintaining these links is called 
networking. Each person may be a 
part of many networks. Compared to 
the old system, where just a few 
connections were possible, the 
number of potential connections is 
mind-boggl ing (Count the number 
of telephones, and then multiply that 
number by itself ) Even more 
profound is the difference in 
the guality of the connections. 
Instead of creating relationships 
which are defined by one person's 
control over the other, they connect 
people as co-operators, opening up 
a potentially infinite flow of 
creativity, ideas, and pleasure. A 
third distinction between the new 
systems and the old involves the 
activity of networking itself. In the 
old context, a person rarely had the 
opportunity to initiate their connec- 
tion or create their place within 
an institution; their membership in 
groups as well as their position 
within them was largely given in 
advance, unchangeable,, Networking, 
in contrast, is the active forming 
of connections, the active choosing 
of which networks one will participate 
in Q In doing networking, in dealing 
with the participatory forms of the 
new age, one is taking charge of one's 
own life without dominating or exercis- 
ing power over others' lives. If the 
web of our functional connections 
makes up our world, then when we do 
networking — when we call the people 
who interest us and exchange infor- 
mation or make connections for mutual 
activity — we are doing much more than 
merely "calling people on the tele- 
phone " We are essentially creating 
our own worl d 

(For those who like thinking about 
the changes in work, thinking and 
communications presently taking 
place, I highly recommend Alvin 
Toff ler's The Third Wave, (New York: 
Wm. Morrow & Co., 1980 o ) He provided 
some of the seeds and inspiration 
for my thinking. ) 

by Jill Kunka 

Illinois' energy agency, the 
Institute of Natural Resources (INR), 
does not official ly provide energy 
information services for women, but 
its ad hoc Women and Energy Program 
is going strong. 

Last December as Solar Energy Out- 
reach Coordinator, I distributed 
5,000 copies of a brochure explaining 
that "energy is a woman's issue". Since 
then, reguests for information have 
flowed into INR from hundreds of 
individual women and major women's 
groups, including the American Associa- 
tion of University Women and Illinois 
Federation of Women's Clubs D 

A I i st of Women and Energy contacts 
nationwide has also been compiled. 
Some excellent work is being sponsor- 
ed by several groups, including 
Consumer Action Now (CAN), a New York- 
based energy and environmental organ- 
ization, Rural American Women, and 
groups affiliated with Women in Solar 
Energy (WISE), an informal national 
women's coalition. Representing an 
opposite point of view, Nuclear 
Energy Women (NEW), funded by the 
Atomic Industrial Forum, has also 
recognized that the "silent majority" 
of women can affect national energy 
policy. Their activities are featured 
in the June issue of Ms. Magazine 
Many women's energy groups, their 
activities, and publ ications can be 
accessed by contacting me at the 
Institute of Natural Resources, 325 
West Adams, Springfield, Illinois, 
62706. Phone: 217/785-2432 

If enough women indicate an inter- 
est in receiving and sharing informa- 
tion and views on energy, INR's 
"ad hoc" network may finally become 
an official program. 

National studies have shown that 
women have a distinct concern for 
environmental protection and safety, 
and are slightly more favorable toward 
energy conservation than are men, but 
many women still lack the confidence 
to become effective in energy matters — 
whether that means weatherizing the 
apartment or pursuing a technical 

In response, I've drawn together 
resource lists, reprints of articles 
on Women and Energy, a home conserva- 
tion guide for women and suggestions 
on how women's groups can adapt 
existing INR resources (including a 
Speakers Bureau) to their own needs. 


"Ann Weiser's Networking Book" 



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Because it runs 
on the Sun! 

August 22*25 

An Outdoor Event sponsored by. 

Governors State university 
Park Forest south, il 60466 

Phone: 312/534-5000 Ext. 2545 



the road takes my 

bi ke with it, 
only the wind 

fights this departure 
from civil ization: 
it is a Southern Illinois autumn 

I stop by a twisted metal fence 

that holds back the cows, 
push my kickstand 

hello how are you — 

no reply... 
I am swayed by every car 

that races by 
but the animals seem not to notice 

some birds swoop and 

above the cows, 

adding to the scene: 

a calf lies in the grass 

while its mother hovers, 
gently I icks it: 

from the gravel roadside 
I can see the big, pink, mother's 

tongue as it 

f I ip-f lops 

back and forth 
against the calf's black hide 

another cal f 
stands and stares at me 

then finally turns away, 

as dried leaves of corn 

turn away and move up, 

into the wind, 

imitating the birds: 

as I turn away from myself 

in this ride: 

there is too much going on here, 
too much movement, 
too much I i fe: 

too much that I cannot be a part of 

the plane overhead 

siqnals my return 

to the road 

to the incessant movement 

to rubber on asphalt 

to eye meeting tree 

meeting cornfield 
and back again 

like a car's windshield 

my glasses are hit 
by tiny insects 

as I ride 

the sky is never the same: 

each time I look up it's 
confused and 

seems ready to break open, 
gushing forth uncertainties. 

it moves back and forth between 
sun and gray, 

until it finally decides 

on a subtle mixture of the two 

the land itself 
wavers between green 

and golden: 
the timothy hay, 

dry and tal I , 
overwhelms whatever 

green grass remains 

I stop again, 

this time on a side road and, 
perched on a mound of gravel 

overlooking a barren cornfield, 
I see a leaf twitch in the sun 

and watch 
as a caterpillar slowly 

and creeps along his own 

self-determined trail 

...all things in f I ux 

all things turning away 
beating a path to their center, 

riding down a country roadoo. 

I return to my bi ke, 
the wind, 

the sun on my back, 
and the slow, slow 
turning away 
of the year into winter 
and the self into self 

by Margaret Brady 


Sharon Rank, 1980 

Nancy Hamilton's most endearing quality 
is, I think, her ability to ask 
the obvious questions and elicit a 
remarkable range of answers Nancy 
has I ived on a farm with her husband 
Alan (and four grown children, now 
off to California and Greece) for the 
past thirty-five years or so, and she 
has been active in scouts, the Y, the 
unitarian church, the local bike 
club and virtually all of the family 
institutions which make up the 
community in which Governors State is 
located. In this essay, she tries to 
convey the way new communities of spirit 
can be nurtured in the out-of-doors. 

B H o 


by Nancy Hami I ton 

It may not be a simple task to 
survive technology. It's getting 
to be a very interrelated world. But 
I dp_ know a lot of people I would bet 
on to survive, with whom I have 
spent memorable times outdoors — not 
hunting, necessarily or pursuing a 
golf ball, or in gasoline driven 
vehicles. The outdoor pastimes I 
recall were inexpensive, democratic, 
sociable, inspiring, fun and re- 
enforcing of the psyche. 

For instance, one of my best 
interracial experiences was in an 
"established" camp (a camp to live in 


day and night for a short time). All 
of course did not go perfect I y 
Does it ever? But probably everyone 
involved had the kind of time he or 
she never quits talking about. 

The lessons from that experience 
have lasted a long time. We learned 
that a group of people sometimes sur- 
vives despite all other predictions. 
One group wandered off on a hike and 
unknowingly drank from a dangerously 
impure creek. Somehow they I ived, 
despite the feeling of desperation 
among the others back in camp, and 
because of the love and support of 
those pulling for them. 

That was serious. Then there was 
the fun, such as finding out that we 
could produce arts and crafts on 
peanuts (not the kind in the shell),, 
Weaving place mats from corn husks 
for example was a revelation both to 
the adult in charge and the weavers, 
and it was free. Another kind of fun, 
also free, was singing. 

There were also skills to be 
acquired. Compass work requires 
some knowledge of reading and numbers, 
but not a lot. Mostly it takes 
courage and a type of aggressiveness 
that can be acquired— and the ability 
to cope with unpleasantness encountered. 

There are snakes, insects, 
poisonous plants, holes in the 
ground, people, quicksand. Some, 
at least, must be dealt with sooner 
or later Some people cope; others 
don'to It is a revealing experience 
to face the outdoors with those 
thought to be friends and those 
presumed enemies, and see who is 
real ly whom. 

Have you ever played what the 
British call wide games? It's a 
kind of on-the-spot learning that 
can be fun. Some require lots of 
skill; others can be very simple. 
All wide games are not alike, but 
in essence it is a team approach 
to learning skills which involve 
covering a lot of space. Often there 
are several teams varying in numbers 

from perhaps ten to fifteen persons,, 
Each team has a score card, and 
follows trails identified by color* 
For example, a yellow team would start 
from the beginning place (where all 
teams begin) and fol low what might 
be ye I low beans laid earl ier. These 
would lead to the first "station". At 
that station each person on the team 
is scored on their performance of a 
particular skill. If anyone on the 
team does not know how to perform 
that skill, they must learn on the 
spot — before the team can move ahead 
The team then moves to the next station 
by following a yellow trail of perhaps 
raffia or yarn scraps. Here everyone 
performs a new ski I I and the team 
moves on. Required skills might include 
identifying birds nests, using a knife, 
making a useful object from twigs, etc. 
At one station usually a topic is 
assigned around which the team must 
perform a skit at the end of the day. 
Topics, skills and scoring can be 
adapted to a variety of purposes. In 
the course of a few hours as many as 
fifty or sixty people can prove their 
skills and have the fun of taking 
part in the game. During rather hair- 
raising situations skills of life- 
dependent seriousness have been taught. 

Wide games, are great experiences 
in sociability, group encounter, 
skill performance and physical testing 
of participants. 

Special skills, like sailing, 
canoeing, walking and cross-country 
skiing are all cheap or can be„ 
Primarily they depend upon the 
developing of certain muscular and 
mental knowledge, but not much on 
money or clout. 

The democratic thing about the 
outdoors is that everyone starts 
from almost the same point — zero 
Rich or not you may be the one who 
can't find your way around a 
compass course, and gets lost — or 
the one who finishes first with the 
scavenger hunt. 

There is something about the 
outdoors that changes people, mostly 


for the goodo The outdoors is 
immediate, and facing the immediate 
seems the only way to learn survival c 
Worry a little, but mostly face up 
to NOW. This is the moment in which 
we live. If use of the outdoors is 
free, shows belief in others, uses 
the present place and time well, that 
is reason for celebrating. To 
heck with the technological era. 

LOUISE HOWARD was born in rural 
Mississippi a few years after World 
War I ended, met and married her 
husband Robert, and brought her family 
to Chicago after WWII to try city 
living. After a few years she decided 
it wasn't worth it c She felt that 
time spent with their children, teach- 
ing them to support themselves off 
the land, would be more valuable than 
the money she could bring in from 
a job at a garment factory e Early 
in the 1950's they discovered Pembroke, 
a rural mostly Black settlement to 
the east of Kankakee, Illinois,, At 
the time, the area was virtually 
undeveloped. Forest fires were 
rampant, there was no water or 
electricity, and only a few homes 
were actually builto But this was 
the kind of land that Louise and 
Robert believed they could survive 
on, and so they bought their five 
acres and have been there ever since c 


mosguitoes, chiggers, and all the 
things that bite you in the woods. 
It stops the itching c You always 
put it on before you go out You 
need 1 pint of mineral oil or baby 

The story that can be told about the 
Howards, and their contributions to 
community well-being in Pembroke, is 
almost endless. Today, nearly thirty 
years later, the little Township 
remains in much the same shape it 
was when they arrived — still no 
central water or sewage treatment., 
Real material poverty is evident 
everywhere,, And yet, there is still 
a kind of knowledge alive — mostly 
in the older people — about how to 
stay healthy. Whether this is a 
remedy, a tonic, or a way to grow 
food, this is knowledge that has 
been tried for long years, and seems 
to be true. The recipes below are 
ones that Louise has always used 
and that you, too, may value. 



oil or olive oil, and a 2 oz. bottle 
of eucalyptus oil Pour away 2 oz. 
of oil from the pint, and add the 
2 oz of eucalyptus oil to the 
bottle. Turn the bottle upside 
down for overnight, get up the 
next morning, shake it up, and you're 
ready to use it. 

"I make it every year. It's 
very good for your skin. It'll 
do a whole big family for a year, 
and it's much cheaper than Off 
or what you call insect repel I ant. 
Lye soap will also keep away 
the poison from bites and things 
like poison ivy. You either wash 
with it, or you rub it on the 

bite. It kills the poison before 
it gets into your bloodstream 
If you're washing with it, you 
should use a little Vaseline to 
keep your skin soft." 

SPRING TONIC It cleans you out and 
keeps you from getting sick through 
the summer — -fevers and stuff. Every- 
body needs to get cleaned out. The 
tonic is in two parts. 

Part One : Take a place knife and 
heap up on the tip some sulfur — 
about 1/8 tsp. Mix the sulfur into 
1 tsp of either blackstrap 
molasses or sorghum molasses. 
Stir it up with a toothpick. 
You stir it in real goodo You 
mix this up and take it every 
morning for three mornings. 

Part Two ; Wait three days. Then 
you take about 1/4 lb. of may 
apple roots (either dry or green). 
Use 1 pint of water, and boil it 
down to about 1/2 cup with the 
May apple roots in it (Remember 
to wash the roots). Remove the 
roots, so you have about a half cup 
of I iquid left. Put it in 1/2 
pint of whiskey You take 1 tbsp 
every morning before breakfast 
for three mornings. Then you're 

"It keeps you from breaking 
down with malaria, chills and 
fever, and sucho It works 
the bile and poisons and stale 
food out of your body. It 
filters out the little intestines 
Honey, I know you haven't 
cleaned the little intestines 
of pigs, but if you had, you'd 
know what I'm talking about You 
take it early in April, and you 
have a glass of water behind it 
because that whiskey is strong." 

for babies and kids when they start 
to school and are exposed to the 
chicken pox and other sicknesses 
that children get. Asafetida is 
a gum you buy at the drug store You 




get a little piece of cloth, wrap the 
gum up in it, and sew it tightly 
shut with black thread Then you 
use that black thread to hang it 
around the child's neck You can cut 
it long enough that it will hang 
down inside the blouse and no one 
will see it. If you find #8 black 
thread, cut you a piece and wear it 
around your neck. It prevents 
common throat diseases. (I asked 
Louise if she thought this was why 
girls wore black velvet ribbons 
around their necks. She said 
maybe so, but they had never had money 
for any more than thread!) 

You can also make this up with 
whiskey if the baby is colicky or 
if you have a stomach ache. You 
put one little block of asafetida in 
1/2 pt. of whiskey It's very strong. 
You just dip a toothpick into it and 
stir your glass of milk with the 
toothpick. That's enoughs, 


For those of you curious, 


A gum resin having an alliaceous (like garlic, onion, leek) odor, 
obtained from the roots of several species of the umbelliferous 
genus Ferula and used in medicine. 


m cUv),tke little kjed 
Ken decided tkat tke 

Old plfUjr W£i£d£jCL CL 

W7Uo will kelp vhc pi on ifc?* 
ske asked 

'O^ot I, solid tke Cow, It 
"Won't work cvwuWcuj.' 

CKot I, "scud theSlieep., 
mere's plenty Uxtke qarden.." 
\>(ot l" Said tne?uj"lts not 
UctKe vwaster pla/n ." 

'JDon't be silly "scud t&e 
Goose, I m. wot irnre 1 believe 
uctke Su^a^-ujwad' 

I kot 1 It pla-vc it my self/' 

said tke little RedKen Ske 

vwkumed out: oacH^issues of some 
popular vnaaazines & wertt to work. . 

Oocm-itwckstune for con- 
struction- to bea i-vc . 

*\vko will liek> n<£ build n 
solar cjreenkouse ?/ a&h^d tke 
little ked<?icr>. 

*~Nlot I /scud ti^eQvj.'A.r-c 
yen Some Uvnd <?j- wot ? " 

*>JotI^scudtke Sneep.TWre5 
plenty Wvtke warden . " 

* >Tot L',' said CkeTuj 'Wnata 
ycrwT zavdvwa anu wtvvj ? * 

^rvnd act blisters ?! " 
SkreiKed tke Goose . 

"Ttten til build it myself, " 

Said tke little ^R&iK&vSi. s\\e did . 

^luldinq by Uerscij 1 wasn't- 

easy, especially wiik no one to 

Kold ike other ouL of tke board fBi/t 

Soow if Was knisked- 

O, \\?ko wijj, kelp vne Set up tke 
Oolar tjreenkouse Tasked tke 

(tovvuj tof l<rrida jov tAvJm'ecKS. 
'3^t I, Stud tke SkCCp! Tkerej 

Stul plenty K\ the aardc.i." 

V ,>lot 1,'swd tke'Jig "A>wl 
vVrtereS Vcnvr biuldvnrt pcrrndf 
dlanestkj, Stvid m£ (300s v • 
{Wat covdd mm. w\y naU-S 

'lUaa ajeeUvui ■ - - , San! tke 
luuek^eddlen.lkistooIskaU 1A0 
■Hv^self. Aj^d ske cUd 

divter, I'RH tried i/rul mure 
"Wn^e v Wtio will kelp me tend 
tke soUrcjfeenkoviSef ske ast<cd 
^Aj-e^yoM, stilt at tkat ? said 
tke (pn7. Anti est abkskme^f 
reVoLdioruvru ! " 

N at I , s aid tke Skeep . 1 m 
tco bvisy cavwu^ta . " 

d\lcrtl. Said tke'lia.cHrtv'e y<ju 
fdeel cv»vtn\7ir'(7nme-ntcd Impcuit $Wuj? 

Aj\d bealavtanvncr stoci^?" 
said tke Goose- 

I *u^kt kft^eknovi»n/5atci tke 
idtfct^cHcn. And ske tended 
tke cjreenkow>e kersdf. 

Oo»n winter ccuiic^odat/"&- 
cracked covn- act borinfl> but 
tke Little *Red <Her> ate Her- 
salads / and cackled. 

jDut ske skared ker bevnkj. 
Tke cvtu*vads "feasted aw f resk. 
tewcatoes &leitute at Christmas. 
Tkeywalle red kv strawberries «n 
Vaien tines JO'H- On tke jv't St da^ 
of Sprinfl,tkey teliskedatcum^crs^ 

crvucntS,<V Squask- 

"^Jke UtticKed<f(en/kad ker 
Concerts '. 'WneM^tke <nttdoor^arde^v 
-was Weil n^der wau ,tkc*^ ad 

cleaned tkeir SoIr< areeKkonSe a- 
bcaoM, tkeir plane for tke nextr 
vvnA*ter~TQeOer kadtkcM be<i*v/ 

Tken me f Jarnier.tke (marteft 
flni»nat,Puldoiedtneir- icw-yetsi- 
hovAz {cr a. new inacuiKe S tied - 

Sfory by Liz Archer. Lettering by Mary Matone 


by D ethe Hagens 

I just looked out my window to 
see the garden sunflowers all uniform- 
ly poised just south-of-west to cap- 
ture the last bit of sunlight for 
the day. It's a cycle that never 
fails to amaze me — now that I see 
it, that is. See those great grace- 
ful golden heads eyeing the sun as 
it moves through the sky. The good 
old sun. 

It used to be really a rather 
uninteresting thing to me I 
don't know whether it was that there 
was always sunshine where I grew 
up in southern California, or that I 
thought you needed sguared streets 
to really be able to tell di recti ons» 
Or that air conditioning literally 
made summers bearable for a I I the 
mothers and children who had to 
stick it out together because it was 
too hot to go outside. I only 
discovered several years ago that the 
mountain range I grew up on is 
aligned east/west and not north/south, 
and that is why the sun always used 
to set in the south! 

Whatever it was, when I finally 
understood that "solar energy" 
really meant learning about and living 
by the properties of the sun, I 
was hooked. I became a myth-crazed 
sunworshipper (I thought in my months 
of deepest skepticism). It was so 
easy it was boring (I thought in my 
months of greatest pride). In effect, 
solar became a concept through which 
I was exercising all of my feelings,, 
Feelings of "good earth iness," say — 
my feelings of religion. Feelings of 
competence — I finally had an organizing 
framework around which to evaluate my 
actions as a consumer. Solar, and the 
network of people who value this 
symbol of technology and humanity, 
are my own indicators that, despite 
politics, there is another more 
promising universe out there that 
we can survive in. 


Doesn't this sound mystical? I'm 
almost embarrassed to write it c But 
there is something like this in solar 
energy and in the many small technolog- 
ical industries springing up to devel- 
op energy, food, and products with 
the limits and potential of the sun 
in mind. They aren't all out there 
trying to produce solar electricity 
to run generators. The ones I'm 
talking about are doing everything 
from selling organic vegetables, 
leading out-of-doors games, and 
raising worms to building greenhouses, 
formulating state energy policy, and 
helping to structure a national 
presidential platform for Barry Commoner 
and the Citizens Party. They are 
trying to integrate human needs with 
technologies that do this in efficient, 
elegant, and interesting ways. In 
ways that wi I I respect the needs of 
others all over the worldo 

Pretty big order, eh? 

Well, maybe this is what makes the 
women's part in the solar energy 
situation different,, We really do 
believe that our small contributions 
will eventually add upo Or as my 
friend Susan Youngdahl once said, 
"a few drops in a bucket aren't much, 
but one day the bucket will be full " 
Or remember the story about whether 
or not you'd rather have $100 or a 
penny, then two pennies, then four 
pennies and so on for a month? Solar 
is growing exponentially, but not 
in a line, in a florescence,, Flowering. 

This is why I am so entranced by 
solar greenhouseso The metaphor of 
blooming, of warm moist air, of fresh 
smells, of soft and crunchy textures. 
Flowers. Vegetables. The greenhouse 
in winter. I can have it if I will 
build it and maintain it. 

I didn't learn quickly that I could 
have it. I didn't believe that I 
could cut a hole in the wall of my 
house, or build anything more sophis- 
ticated than a bookshelf or desk, or 
raise anything but houseplants And 
it took many years to convince me 
otherwise. This is where community 

(continued on p„ 20) 










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projects came in„ The government funds 
lots of community projects,, The 
positive side of these programs, partic- 
ularly in solar, is that individuals 
can often take part in the installation 
of new equipment on an institutional 
community facility (like a library), 
see how it does, see how it is main- 
tained and repaired, and ultimately 
give long consideration to the purchase 
of a unit for the home. "Active" 
solar panels have been an example of 
funded community demonstration projects 
that are catching on, but slowly. In 
effect, one heating system is traded 
for another. A comparatively cheap 
conventional system (oil, gas, electric) 
whose costs for fuel are likely to 
skyrocket is replaced by expensive 
solar panels that will require minimal 
fuel (for pumps) and that will have 
paid for themselves in fifteen years. 
Most people say, "I'll wait till the 
price comes down." 

But with solar greenhouses, the 
story has been very different. People 
pay to go to workshops to build solar 
greenhouses on other people's 
houses! People actually attach solar 
greenhouses to their homes and move 
into them, virtually abandoning their 
former I iving spaces. There are 
whole networks of people exchanging 
information on how to use solar green- 
houses. There is many a comfortable 
Senior Citizen (for Senior Citizens 
Centers have been prime recipients of 
government solar greenhouse grants) 
sitting out there in the 80° greenhouse 
in the middle of winter reminding a 
fellow gardener to put on his coat 
before leaving "Florida." 

Solar greenhouses provide abundant 
and reliable daytime heat, wonderful 
recreation space, and natural I ight 
Once plants are brought in, they 
serve as natural air fresheners. At 
night, most will remain above 
freezing in even the most severe win- 
ters if properly oriented and tightly 
sealed. Many will support the growth 
of vegetables year-round „ And 
while cost is a factor for luxury 
and convenience, a cheap greenhouse 
handled with care will perform just 


as well as your Cadillac variety. 
Love and .persistence are the keys. 

But back to my point about 
community demonstrations,, I partici- 
pated in several "community" solar 
greenhouse raisings before reaching 
the point of being willing to 
actually do something to the outside 
of my house besides paint it or 
replant. I had always seen the 
exterior as some kind of sacred 
barrier, the property of "a builder." 
I had no idea what was behind the 
boards. I knew that "walls" were 
on the inside, but that was about it. 
(It was a revelation when we remodelled 
the bathroom and I saw studs and 
exterior wallboard — all uninsulated — 
for the first time!) Even while 
actually wording on my first commun- 
ity solar greenhouse I didn't really 
grasp what it was that we were doing. 

We were working in Pembroke, a kind 
of backwoodsy Black area about forty 
miles south of Governors State,, We 
were there because the local women I 
knew, particularly Louise Howard, 
thought that a solar greenhouse for 
the community would be just great — 
for food drying, winter vegetable 
production, starter plants,, It'd 
never occurred to me that they would 
be the most receptive audience for 
solar that I would encounter. (Vor 
did it seem strange or noteworthy 
that poor people found solar technol- 
ogies simple and compelling while 
communities nearer to home and more 
suburban in orientation had not 
found the ideas particularly attractive, 

In the eighteen months that we spent 
building the community prototype, 
three or four other greenhouses were 
built in Pembroke,, While we used 
complex designs for the large struc- 
ture, which would be used later for 
different kinds of experimentation 
and testing, the locals made quick 
adaptations and began attaching them 
to their homes and businesses. 

I think I caught Pembroke green- 
house fever in November of 1979 when 
I stepped into Joy Camp's greenhouse 




1). A modest bungalow in disrepair qoes slowly solar. The 
home of Bethe Hagens and Jim Laukes. 2). "It's really nothir 
new. I don't know why we never did it." James Felton, Sr. , 
Mgr. , Pembroke Health Foods and Restaurant. 3). The "Big 
Greenhouse" in Pembroke where experiments proceed with 
plants, earthworms, laying hens, and composting. 4). Art 
and Joy Camp attached their greenhouse for about SI 25. 
5). Joy had it planted before Art not it sided. 


and saw not only ripe pole beans 
and cucumbers, but bright red tomatoes, 
Joy and Art's greenhouse was built 
for about $125 (most of that for 
fiberglass for the south-facing side) 
and some scrounged lumber and van 
windows. They used the NCAT design 
reprinted above. In fact, their 
greenhouse was tied into their whole 
house in a kind of fascinating way c 
The basement windows at ground level 
on the south side of the house were 
enclosed by the greenhouse c So was 
the large, south-facing living room 
window. Joy opens and closes the 
windows depending upon the weather 
Many days, hot air from the green- 
house pours into the house and will 
keep the heater from switching on. 
As the hot air leaves, the cooler 
air from the basement is pushed 
into the greenhouse and heated by the 
sun. Meanwhi le, the Camps and the 
vegetables enjoy the circulation of 
fresh air. 

Fe I ton's Pembroke Health Food Store 
greenhouse is a similar story. About 
$500 in materials, substantially 
reduced winter fuel needs, and — the 
BIG difference — more customers for the 

Reporters come from all over to 
Pembroke for interviews. The Camps 
resent the emphasis on "low cost" 
and "new solution." "This is old, 
typical stuff that they're making 
too much out of," says Joy c "And 
besides, I'm not poor c Rut oh, I 
love my greenhouse. Mr. Camp is 
going to extend it all down the side 
of the house and over to that out- 
building." And James Felton talks 
about the happy hens in the community 
greenhouse, the money savings for 
his store. To reporters. In private, 
he tells me that he can't understand 
why we didn't do it before. "We all 
knew all these things. All the 
pieces were there. Why didn't we do 
it?" Now, at 68, he worries only 
that we won't get it to the young 
children fast enougho "If they 
don't take it, then none of it was 
worth it, was it?." 

Our house is not a low-cost 
variety greenhouse addition. But 
then, neither is it a speedy one. 
Whereas the typical solar greenhouse 
can be finished within a week, ours 
is now in its eleventh month and still 
many months from completion. Essential 
ly, we had a foundation that would 
need replacing and a roof in very bad 
repair. Rather than repair and then 
think of redesign, we tried both at 
once. We poured a new foundation 
and extended it out to include a 
greenhouse space c We raised the 
roof, Egyptian style, to create a 
loft for a new two-story greenhouse. 
The cost will be about three times 
what the repair would have entailed, 
but we will have gained an auxilliary 
heating system, a sunporch, a year- 
round garden, and about 1/3 more 
floor space for the house. Not to 
mention the greatest surprise, which 
has been cooling this summer for the 
rooms directly to the north of the 
addition — the kitchen and dining room. 
Apparently the greenhouse is an 
excellent insulator. Even unfinished! 

The hardest part of all of these 
greenhouses, but especially my own, 
has been living through the periods 
before they are completed. Sometimes 
the mess, and the dust, and the lack 
of order are really d isheartening 
But then I wanted to do this cheaply 
and as I could afford it, right? And 
the components that are in place are 
in place for longer than I'll be 
alive. And if it's just going to 
get so totally dirty again tomorrow, 
why be so compulsive about cleaning 

Slowly, you work yourself through 
the period of construction into real 
anticipation. How will it feel, what 
can we grow, should we really sleep 
in there? And you find that you 
don't go out as often. Some 
researchers seriously mention a kind 
of "three year honeymoon" before 
you take the greenhouse for grantedo 
But you know, when I look out there 
and see Lauk (my sweetie) craning 
his head toward the sun trying to 
orient one of our solar ovens, I 
like staying home even more. 


Mary Appelhof's work is prolific, 
integrated, and underpaid. She is 
unable to resist the attraction of 
art or the scientific method of 
problem solving,, She's a woman 
who keeps her hand in graphics 
design, photography, feminist business 
advocacy, vermicology (the study of 
earthworms) and community organizing. 
The perspective she provides here is 
that it all fits together. 


Mary Appelhof (left) and Ilda Wissman, founders of Flower-field Enterprises 
peering from a woman designed, woman-built shed. Photo: Bernie Heywood 

by Mary Appelhof 

One factor in surviving our 
technological age will be our ability 
to more effectively utilize biological 
systems to restore the imbalances our 
technologies create,, Consider the 
flush toileto Odor-free. Convenient 
Relatively trouble-free. But then 
think of the water it takes to keep 
it operating: 10,000 gallons per person 
per year. In most cases, this water 
is high gual ity, potable water, used 

merely to dilute, then disperse bodily 
wastes away from the point of deposi- 
tion o 

"Away" can vary from a few feet 
into a septic tank and tilefield to 
miles away through a complex sewer 
system with expensive, highly technical, 
energy intensive wastewater treatment 
facilities. What to do with the 
sludge from wastewater treatment plants 
is becoming an increasingly greater 
problem as landfills close, and ocean 
dumping becomes i I legal „ 

Sludge composting, aguatic plant, 


and land application systems are being 
developed to utilize biological systems 
to convert wastes in environmentally 
sound ways But what I would like to 
address here is how an individual living 
in a home or apartment can reduce the 
amount of household kitchen waste to 
be diluted and flushed down the drain, 
or hauled away as solid waste to the 
landfillo The biological system 
which accomplishes this is one which 
utilizes earthworms, or more simply, 

Two reports from as early as 1954 
describe procedures for using worms 
to process household garbage., Two 
women (Crowe and Bowen), a teacher 
and an insurance agent, used worms and 
worm compost to change their "concrete 
soil" backyard to a bountifully produc- 
ing, lush, luxuriant garden Although 
they had several outdoor worm pits, to 
enable the worms to work throughout 
the Ohio winters, Crowe and Bowen 
built a large concrete block pit 
(9 x 4 x 2{ ft) in their basement e 
Drainage was provided by pouring a 
slanted concrete floor on top of a row 
of 8 inch blocks with a drain hole at 
the low end. To several bushels of 
cow manure and leaves they added 
earthworm laden compost and soil on 
which they sprinkled ground limestone 
and rock phosphate. 

Crowe and Bowen buried their kitchen 
garbage in this pit all winter, a 
gallon or so each time, keeping the 
bedding moist, and rotating deposits 
daily around the pit. Melon rinds, 
egg shells, coffee grounds, citrus 
rinds, even bones were buried. Worms 
and other microorganisms converted 
this organic material to worm compost, 
mixing in the inorganic materials for 
a nutrient-rich humus to use in their 

The worms multiplied, and Crowe and 
Bowen established a business called 
Wonder Worm Farms, marketing their 
worms as "Wonder Worms" They eventual- 
ly got so many "how to do it" inquiries 
they published a 32 page pamphlet to 
serve as a "this is what we did, here's 
how you can do it" account of their 

experience in using earthworm compost 
to restore the fertility of their 
soiU WITH TAILS WE WIN is still 
available today from Shields Publica- 
t ions2<, 

Also published in 1954, LET AN 
Farm and Garden Research Associates) 
describes an outdoor compost bin, also 
built with concrete blocks, but which 
was bottomless in order to attract 
wild worms from the soil to help 
convert garbage and lawn residues to 
compost. Recommending two or three 
of these four square feet pits per 
family, they described a procedure 
which looked highly labor intensive 
with sod digging, cement block laying, 
mounds of straw to haul, huge cans of 
garbage to bury, provisions for rodent 
control by means of screens and boards. 

Mary sorts a handful of worms from some 
well-processed manure and garbage, most 
of which is now worm castings. 
Photo: Diane Johnson 


Although we don't know how many 
families have gone to the effort of 
setting up either of the previously 
described worm composting systems, 
thousands of both publications have 
been sold, and the fact that they are 
still in print indicates at the very 
least, a high interest in the potential 
for using worms to process garbage. 

Garbage can composting with worms 
became quite popular in the early 
1970's in the Rochester, N Y. area 
(Weir, 1974). Three annual, well- 
publicized "Afternoon of Composting" 
tours expanded from a mere handful to 
hundreds the number of home basements 
containing garbage cans with redworms. 

My own experience using redworms 
for garbage disposals began in 1972, 
Two factors contributed to the deci- 
sion to first purchase worms: 1) It 
seemed from the promotional literature 
that a profitable business could develop, 
and 2) Raising earthworms and encourag- 
ing their use appeared to make a lot 
of sense environmentally. They convert- 
ed wastes to usable materials, and they 
contributed to the fertility of the 
soil. My partner at that time, 1 1 da 
Wissman, and I, purchased two pounds 
of worms, and established our business, 
Flowerfield Enterprises, named after 
the township of which we were then 

Wiss built a coffin-like box in 
the basement to house the worms, and 
we hauled manure to f i I I it Q We read 
books about raising and marketing 
worms, including the two 1954 publi- 
cations. When spring came the worms 
had multiplied so we laid a cement 
block pit in the old basement of an 
unfinished house. 

We counted, one-by-one, and sold 
over 50,000 worms that first season. 
That sounds I i ke a lot of worms, and 
it is when you count them one at a 
time, but at a wholesale price of 
$6/1000, that's a total revenue of 
only $300, and hardly a money-maker 
considering the time, effort, and 
materials required.. We knew that to 
produce real income we would have to 

expand o And to stop counting worms 
one by one. We learned from our 
reading that growers selling large 
quantities were also using perhaps 
tons of grain to fatten up those 
worms for bait. We objected to that 
from an environmental standpoint,, To 
feed tons of grain to worms when people 
were starving around the world was 
inconsistent with our desire to be 
involved in an environmentally sound 

So we changed tack, saying, "We know 
the worms are good at eating garbage,, 
We know the compost produced is laden 
with nutrients to make plants grow 
better. Let's encourage the use of 
worms for doing what they are good at — 
converting garbage to a useful end 
product — and play down fattening them 
up with grain to sell them for bait," 

Our first venture into publishing 
did just that. We wrote and published 
a two-page illustrated, copyrighted 
brochure, "Basement Worm Bins Produce 
Potting Soil and Reduce Garbage" 
(Flowerfield Enterprises). Articles 
in national publications, including 
Mso Magazine (Wissman), brought inquir- 
ies from all over the country. Letters 
of support (rarely money, or even a 
stamp ), encouragement, curiosity as to 
how we did it, and inquiries about 
"How can I do it?" came pouring in Q 
We answered all but the ones which 
got lost in the ever increasing pile 
on my desk. And sold worms, by the 
pound, and publications. Mostly, we 
just spread the word. 

I wrote articleso I prepared grant 
proposals to scale up the system. We 
gave demonstrations at fal I harvest 
festivals and barter fairs, I gave 
talks to organic growers, and garden 
clubs, and community organizations. 

After five years of submitting 
proposals, two finally got funded, 
and a current cl imate of encouragement 
exists across the country „ The 
National Center for Appropriate 
Technology funded a Kalamazoo Nature 
Center project to have six low- income 
families save their household kitchen 


wastes, burying them weekly in simple 
wooden bins at the Nature Center 
(Appelhof, 1979a). During the four- 
teen weeks, black women and white 
women, young and old, fed 297 pounds 
of garbage to 24 pounds of worms 
Each participant received about 40 
pounds of worm compost to use in her 
garden. They claimed that the compost 
made all the difference in the world 
in their gardens. The women loved 
the project, perhaps from the attention 
and publicity they received, but also 
because they liked to do it. It was 
simple to learn what could go in 
(organic wastes), what must be kept 
out (bottle caps, plastic). They 
liked learning something new, something 
that made so much sense. (Appelhof, 

My efforts continue to simplify the 
technique of using worms to process 
garbage, to make it more acceptable,. 
Our first bin, described in the 
previously mentioned brochure, used 
a galvanized stock tank lined with 
gravel, covered with oak planks, con- 
taining several bushels of manure 
and peat moss as bedding for the 2-3 
pounds of worms. It requires a lot 
of personal dedication , and a base- 
ment, to set up that cumbersome a 
unit to process the pound or so of 
garbage which may be generated in a 

For the NCAT project we used a 
much simpler system of homemade ply- 
wood boxes with holes in the bottom 
for aeration Moistened shredded 
cardboard or newspaper was used for 
bedding, a burlap bag as a cover to 
help retain moisture,, The instruction- 
al brochure developed for this project, 
"Composting Your Garbage with Worms" 
(Appelhof, 1979c) is available from 
the Kalamazoo Nature Center, and has 
resulted in a number of families 
setting up similar bins. 

In my own household of two, I 
continue to experiment. I use a 
2' x 2' x 8" plywood box with nine 
i" holes in the bottom for aeration. 
I experiment with beddings, trying to 
determine what readily obtainable 
materials will provide a satisfactory 
environment for the pound or two of 
worms to interact with the micro and 
other mac roorgan isms to convert the 
garbage to worm compost. Shredded 
cardboard works, but is difficult to 
obtain Q Shredded peat moss may not 
be good by itself (Appelhof 1980), but 
is good in mixtures. Manure works. 
Shredded newspaper seems to be working,, 
A thin layer of soil can be used on 
the bottom, but isn't necessary. A 
loose plastic cover on top helps 
retain moisture. Burying the garbage, 
covering it with one or two inches of 
bedding, reduces or eliminates odor Q 

Illustration: Mary Frances Fenton 


Tiny humpback flies are a bit of a 
nuisance, and we are trying to find 
a biologically sound way to deal with 

Maintenance of a household vermi - 
composting unit is reasonably simple. 
A box could be built and set up in 
half a day or less. Once the worms 
are in and established, it may take 
ten minutes a week to bury the garbage, 
that is, if you want to spend a few 
minutes observing the worms, looking 
for cocoons (pale globes about { the 
size of a grain of rice) from which 
will hatch baby worms in 2-3 weeks 
Because high concentrations of worm 
castings (worm manure) are toxic to 
the worms, every four months or so, 
fresh bedding should be prepared, and 
the worms separated from their old 
bedding, now black, humus-rich, 
nutrient laden vermi compost „ This 
can be done in a couple of hours by 
dumping the entire contents in a 
cone shaped pile on a large plastic 
sheet, and shining a bright light 
above the pile. Worms will quickly 
move away from the I ight and towards 
the center of the pile. By intermit- 
tently scraping the top compost off 
the pile, you will eventually end up 
with wriggling masses of worms at the 
bottom These, with some of the 
cocoon containing compost, can then 
be placed on top of the fresh bedding 
for the next cycle,. 

The vermicompost makes excellent 
transplanting medium when mixed with 
soil, potting soil, peat moss, sand, 
or whatever you might normal ly use 
If there is sufficient organic 
material for food, any worms present 
will also make your plants grow 
better. We do not recommend that you 
plant seeds or cuttings into 100$ worm 
castings for a number of reasons, 
including inability to hold moisture, 
and excess salt concentrations. Pre- 
paring mixes using from 1/5 to 1/3 
worm castings, or using them as top 
dressing for your plants should bring 
exce I I ent resu I ts . 

Added support for my feeling of 
encouragement at this time comes 

from the fact that the National Science 
Foundation funded a workshop, to con- 
vene the top earthworm scientists and 
worm industry leaders to define Re- 
search Needs in the Role of Earthworms 
in the Stabilization of Organic 
Residues. As coordinator of this 
workshop I met in Kalamazoo, April, 
1980, with scientists from seven 
foreign countries, Canada, and U S. 
to assess where we are now, and what 
research needs to be carried out to 
develop the potentials which exist 
for earthworms to convert wastes to 
usable products and help restore 
the fertility of our soils A pre- 
conference bibliography of over 
1200 citations on earthworm research 
since 1970 (Role of Earthworms- 
Bibl iography) has now been expanded 
to over twice that size. So I am 
encouraged that communication is 
occurring, research is being done, 
impressive large scale projects are 
being undertaken. 

Recognition for the finite nature 
of our resources is causing more and 
more scientists and decision -makers 
to take a look at technologies which 
exploit the environment. As more 
see that exploitation is a no-win 
decision for the long haul, some will 
be looking for technologies which are 
environmentally sound to begin witho 

I intend to be there with my worms, 
to take my wastes, to convert them to 
plant food, to feed my plants, which, 
in turn will feed me„ What simpler 
way to survive our technological age? 


1„ Both 1954 publications described 
here are treated more fully in 
"Household Scale Vermi composting", 
presented at the Research Needs 
Workshop on the Role of Earthworms 
in the Stabilization of Organic 
Residues, April 9-12, 1980 o The 
workshop was funded by the National 
Science Foundation Grant #0PA 7919- 


672 awarded to the Institute of 
Public Affairs, Western Michigan 
University, Kalamazoo, Michigan c 
Shields Publications, PO Box 669, 
Eagle River, Wisconsin 5452U 


Appelhof, Mary 1979a D Winter composting 
with worms. Final Report to Nation- 
al Center for Appropriate Technology, 
Butte, Montana. 

Appelhof, Mary 1979b. "Verm i composting 
on a Household Scale" In: Proceed- 
ings, International Colloquium on 
Soil Zoology, Syracuse, N.Y. July, 
1979. In Press. 

Appelhof, Mary 1979c. "Composting 

Your Garbage with Worms". (Brochure) 
Available from Kalamazoo Nature 
Center, 7000 N. Westnedge, Kalamazoo, 
Ml, 49007. ($1) 4 pp„ 

Appelhof, Mary 1980 o "Household Scale 
Verm i composting". In: Role of 
Earthworms in the Stabilization 
of Organic Residues, Kalamazoo, 
Michigan, 1980: Proceedings, 
compiled by Mary Appelhof. Kalamazoo, 
Michigan: Western Michigan University 
Institute of Public Affairs, 1980. 
In preparation c 

Crowe, Mary and Gladys Bowen 1954. 
WITH TAILS WE WIN. Available from 
Shields Publications, P0 Box 669, 
Eagle River, Wisconsin 54521. 32 pp. 

Flowerfield Enterprises 1973. 

"Basement Worm bins produce potting 
soi I and reduce garbage" c (Brochure) 
Available from Flowerfield Enterprises 
121 E. Van Hoesen, Kalamazoo, Michi- 
gan, 49002 o ($1) 2 pp. 

Home, Farm and Garden Research Associates 
GARBAGE MAN. Available from Shields 
Publications, op cit c 

Role of Earthworms in the Stabilization of 
Organic Residues, Kalamazoo, Michigan 
1980: Bibliography, compiled by Diane 
Worden. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Western 
Michigan University Institute of 
Publ Ic Affairs, 1980. 

Role of Earthworms in the Stabilization 
of Organic Residues, Kalamazoo, 
Michigan, 1980: Proceedings, 
compiled by Mary Appelhof e Kalamazoo, 
Michigan: Western Michigan University 

Institute of Public Affairs, 1980. 
Weir, Byrna 1974. "Compost piles: You 

show me yours, I'll show you mine". 

In: OUT IN THE 0PEN o Available from 

Porter-Tel, PO Box 18041, Rochester, 

N.Y 14618. 98-1 16 
Wissman, I Ida M 1973. "Inching Into 

the Worm Business". In: Ms Magazine, 

August, 1973. 


I still remember the day the Kirby 
man came. And my little brother 
John hollering "So long, sucker" as 
he drove off with our old machine. 
My mom writes this story. 



by Lucie Hagens 

Coming from a line of people who 
believed in name brand buying, the 
Del Monte label, the Whitman's 
Sampler, Beautyrest in bedroom 
furnishings, I carried into the 
early years of our marriage the image 
of my mother's Hoover Sweeper. It 
was upright and large, the last of 
the great Hoovers, with a little 
side pedal which enabled it to 
adjust to carpet depth. You could 
hurry with it around the center 
pedestal of our dining room table 
without fear of scratching the 
spreading scrol led legs. When I 
closed my mother's house fourteen 
years ago I left the Hoover in its 
closet in the kitchen and there is 
every reason to believe that it is 
still beating as it sweeps as it 

My husband and I were married 
during WWII and gave little thought 
those few months we had together to 
deep cleaning,, I used to borrow 
the building vacuum from our 
apartment landlady and whish over 
things if someone was coming over» 
But after my husband went overseas 
with the U.S. Army, I used to clean 
not only our apartment, but the entire 
upstairs hall in an effort to forget 
the joys of our brief time together. 

On our first Christmas together 
after Japan surrendered, my big 
gift was a vacuum cleaner from Sears. 
My husband had been convinced by the 
salesman that it was manufactured 
by Hoover but carried Sears' own label 
I used it for ten years and kept a 
fairly tight ship c By the time we 

had moved to our second house, the 
carpeting seemed so vast I was at 
it constantly. One morning there 
was a rattle and my Kenmore flung 
its rubber belt across the room and 
began breathing dust back out of 
its moutho Before we had a chance to 
discuss the best solution, my husband 
was off on a trip, and I was charmed 
into opening my door and offering 
my hospitality to a Kirby Vacuum 

He displayed an array of attach- 
ments which would not only do what I 
wanted done, but in addition would 
polish silver, spray paint, shine up 
the car following the application 
of wax, and chase moths With a 
twist and a flourish the salesman 
turned the thing into a hand vacuum 
and led the way into our bedroom where 
he threw back the bedding and ran 
his machine over the mattress We 
returned to the I iving room where 
he removed a little filter and 
showed me how poor my cleaning methods 
were. I was in a suspended condftion 
somewhere between delight and horror 
at what I saw, and euphoria at the 
thought of undreamed of vacuum 

The price was outrageous but the 
salesman was a whiz. He assured me 
that monthly payments could be worked 
out. As a matter of fact, he said, 
if I could convince my friends to 
have demonstrations such as I had 
experienced, I would receive $2.50 
for each friend toward the total 
owed. I signed right on the dotted 
line and off he went, leaving me 
with cartons and booklets and a 
payment record with certain threats 
in small print Q The first friend 
I called taught me a valuable lesson c 
Following my awkward and apologetic 
presentation she said she'd rather 
just give me the $2,50 o She already 
knew how to say "No" at the front 

I was weeks at acquiring ease 
with my new machine. Everything was 
so heavy and required the use of 


wrenches and a knowledge of dynamics. 
By the time I got the polishing or 
drilling cable attached and function- 
ing, there was so much equipment 
operating it would frighten the 
children. I liked the long attach- 
ment, narrow at one end, which would 
go between the refrigerator, or the 
pianc and the wall and suck out 
lost toys. There was a little red 
plastic cap just behind the bag 
into which one could pour a few 
drops of Pine Scent which came in a 
bottle in one of the boxes. It 
seemed nice at Christmas time c Many 
years later I discovered I could 
create the same pleasant odour by 
vacuuming up the needles under the 
tree e My mother-in-law gave us 
a lovely little oriental prayer rug 
and the fringe disappeared into the 
voracious jaws of my Kirby c It was 
and is so powerful that one must 
be careful. After we had the house 
recarpeted, we had to watch that we 
didn't suction the new carpet right 
off the stripping to which it was 
attachedo There are eight (from 
zero to seven) levels of nap adjust- 
ment to be used judiciously. 

Just under the red plastic handle 
grip there is a slot into which, the 
salesman said, you could drop dlmes 
The quarter and nickle were not to 
be used lest they lodge and impede 
the accumulation of savings. Eighteen 
inches of dimes was a lot of money 
then, and I used the handle the way 
my grandmother used her sugarbowl e 
In its time that dime bank purchased 
two baseball gloves, a violin bow, and 
began payments on orthodonture. 

It was always a victory to fit 
the parts back into the correct cor- 
rugated slot or groove so that the 
attachment boxes would close. Eventua 
ly the boxes which accommodated the 
disks and cables and extra bolts 
remained more and more at the back of 
the closet. Our Kirby narrowed down 
to being an upright with attachments. 
One box still is stored in the broom 
closet. It hangs on the left and 
we bump into it when looking for 
broom or fly swatter. 


When in the upright position, 
if the boys had left parts of their 
erector set on the floor of their 
room, these would be caught up and 
masticated without the smallest 
damage to the vacuum. It performed 
not only weekly cleaning, and the 
seasonal housed eaning which was 
still the thing in those days before 
we a I I sought careers outside the 
home, but feats of emergency clean- 
up following birthday parties, 
Christmas and Thanksgiving feasts 
with our families, baseball team 
celebrations, the junior high school 
honor society's not so dignified 
goings on at the end of the school 
year, many a slumber party with its 
crushed potato chips Q It took 
charge of the spilled ash tray of 
the day. That no longer happens 
since we've given up that lovely 

There were extra rubber belts in 
one of the box sections, but I've 
replaced them only once The 
emptying of the bag, which does not 
accommodate the paper liner as other 
cleaners do, is laborious but satis- 
fying, as one alternately turns the 
start button on and off, and then 
quickly shakes the bag so that its 
contents will drop into a cast alum- 
inum box along one side of the head Q 
Then a lever is flipped and the bottom 
of the box lifts to one side and the 
accumulation of dust and dog hair and 
all that somehow gets into your 
carpets falls on to a newspaper 
spread beneath. 

About eight years ago, having 
vacuumed my way through three houses 
over a period of twenty years, it 
seemed a housewifely thing to take 
my cleaner to the Rosemont Vacuum 
Company for an overhaul. That is 
what I asked for when I went in — an 
overhaul. The gentleman behind the 
counter looked through the bottom 
of his bifocals and said, "Ah, a 
Kirby, the Cadillac of vacuum cleaners." 
He couldn't find anything wrong with 
it. A new bag, I thoughts "No," he 
pointed out, I could see that there 
were no breaks in it, and the seams 
were good. Perhaps the brush then. 

That too seemed somewhat worn, but 
certainly adequate. The broken place 
in the attachment hose responded to 
some wide red Kirby tape The cord 
and electrical connections were fine. 
He wiped the shiny parts with a 
treated cloth which caused them to 
gleam, sprayed graphite within the 
head, and told me I was free to take 
my cleaner home. There was no 
charge, and he held the door open 
for me as I left, cautioning me to 
take care of my Kirby since it is a 
lifetime companion. I began to 
realize what treasure I'd paid so 
dearly for when young. 

It took a little time for this 
experience to take on its fullest 
meaning. The onus of the payment 
book had stayed with me long after 
the final payment, but now I dis- 
carded all that unpleasantnesSo The 
boxes of spray paint and polish 
eguipment now fit beautifully and 
far out of sight at the back of a 
deeper cupboard. Our cleaning man 
often reenforces me by telling me 
I have the best vacuum cleaner of 
all his customers. Not long after 
my visit to the repair shop, I read 
that the gentleman who helped change 
my attitudes had died, and his 
nephew would succeed him in the 
business. I only hope he is the 
man his uncle was, but there is 
some doubt that this ever will be 
put to the test by me and my Kirby„ 



Thanks to Jean Dekker for our graffiti 


Dear Bethe, 

I suppose you'll buy leghorns, 
those new crossbreds who are super- 
efficient at converting feed into 
steri I e- looking white eggs But I 
sort of hope not (nostalgia is 
overtaking me — always a bad sign Q ) 
What I hope is that you have what 
used to be called and, perhaps still 
are, "heavy breeds" — Plymouth 
(sometimes called "barred') Rocks, 
Buff Orpingtons and, my favorite, 
Rhode Island Reds. Now the R. I 
Red is a heru Nice full bodies, 
excellent egg production and gorgeous 
deep brown-red feathers — and tame 
You can pick them up like pussycats. 
The roosters, of course, are a 
different story. Born belligerent 
and super-horny, they're really 
good for I ittle except to be fried 
at the earliest possible opportunity 
before they get old and tough and 
vicious. They are not quite as 
resplendent as Buff Orpington 
roosters, though, who at maturity 
have some shiny green feathers to 
set off the deep gold of the rest of 
their plumage and which, if anything, 
are twice as mean as other male birds. 

The good thing about these birds 
is that after your laying hens have 
finished their year of full production, 
they are the absolute best for 
simmering slowly with home-made 
noodles. Don't try to get a full- 
grown rooster really tender- it's 
like cooking tripes a la Caen 


i/V a 


]/\A(K~^erv\a.\ | 

Zoning laws probably preclude the 
raising of goats. That's too bad 
because I think any form of subsis- 
tence farming is a little incomplete 
without some of these gorgeous 
creatureSo If you ever buy any does 
of whatever breed, be sure to look 
at the shape. 

(I have a feel inq I ought to shut 
up — but the good thing about a letter 
is that you can throw it away at this 
point instead of having to listen 
politely to me harangue). 

If your doe ever injures her udder 
(barbed wire, etc.) zinc oxide 
ointment is the best thing to use 
unless it's really bad enough to call 
the vet. Don't worry if she's got 
horns. Usually (no matter what they 
say — animals bred for hornlessness 
don't give as much milk — that's 
not 100$, only in general). Besides, 
most does are as gentle as house pets. 
Bucks, of course, are a different 
horse. ( sorry to mix that metaphor) 
A full-grown buck goat will kill you 
or anybody else given the chance. 
But the nifty thing is that you 
would need only one buck for a 
whole herd of does and I'm sure you 
could arrange suitable security 
for your caprine friendo Also should 
tell you but you probably know — 
does do not have a smell. A herd 
of does does less damage to olfactory 
nerves than the same number of dogs, 
let alone cows. But the buck does — 
so pen him as far as possible from 

w>'// be sh^p^d 

ooK -for \v\(K,\ V\'\C*L 
ck.v\ uddev- fln^f JS 
[^ fU -fva^f.Oieck 

-H^ odd 


_ V\ o So'r^ 


s l efc. 


where people live as you can conveniently 

I am listening to Pete Seeger sing 
My Lover was a_ Logger (who stirred 
his coffee with his thumb) God — 
will I never grow up? 

Of course you know that goats 
don't eat tin cans, but they are 
nowhere as finicky as the goat maga- 
zines say. I used to feed mine good 
hay and half a coffee-can of horse 
feed (medium-priced grain mixed with 
molasses) when I would milk them 
morning and night. 

I have to tel I about having Kids 
Most goats mate in SeptrOct.,, except 
Nubians (those are those beautiful 
Roman-nosed goats with long drooping 
ears like Bed I ington Terriers- they 
give the least milk — highest butter- 
fat — like Jersey cows) which do it 
every chance they get e Five month 
gestation When Kids are born, 
castrate bucks with a plain office 
rubber band around scrotum next to 
the skin. Balls will drop off within 
a week — not even a scar. Try not 
to make bucks pets (it's hard), but 
you'll be eating them soon (6 months 
to a year — better than veal). 
Separate Kids from does (after 
colostrum stops) although the does will 
complain a lot^ and start feeding Kids 
dry calf-starter mixed up with water 
in a pan c Some people have trouble 
pan-breaking Kids but I never did. 
Just stick your hand in the calf- 
starter and let the Kid suck your 
finger — it will get the idea. New 
Kids should be fed frequently about 
every couple of hours. I used to 
bring them into the kitchen to 
keep them handy at this point. 

Good Luck! 





Here is an "old fashioned" 
construction project that is more 
fun than we ever imagined — a ginger- 
bread house,, The new twist is that 
there's no reason it can't be a 
solar gingerbread house! W© simply 
measured the house, windows and 
all, sized it on graph paper so that 
it was about 1/2 inch for 1 foot, and 
began baking by the recipe below Q The 
baking took hours, but we decorated 
the walls at a Christmas party and 
glued it together with friends who 
dropped by the next day to see how 
it was going. 

I can't emphasize enough that you 
can't do it in an afternoon But, if 
you follow the directions, you can't 
fail. And you learn an amazing 
amount about your home, support walls, 
stress, and drafting in the process,, 
You can even use the house dimensions 
that you collect for an energy audit 00 , 
later Q 

If you don't want to measure your 
home to make customized patterns, 
use ours that are given below. 
Your finished product will resemble 
the drawing on the upper right 

First, cut out and label cardboard 
patterns for roof, sides, and ends 
of house a Then make up dough and 
cut patterns as guides. Dough is 
cut and baked on cookie sheets, so 
you'll need three or four, or 
space your work so that one cookie 
sheet is enough. 

It is easiest to decorate pieces 
after baking but before assembling, 
while you can lay them flat. Then 
when the frosting "cement" has 
hardened, put the house together 
and touch up joints with frosting 

Cardboard Patterns . Use poster 
board, light cardboard, or graph 
paper. For the north half of the 
roof, mark off and draw an 8-inch 
square. For the south side, draw 
an 8-by-3-inch rectangle and an 


8-by-5-inch rectangle. Cut out. 
For the side walls of the house, 
draw a 8-by-4 inch rectangle. Cut 
out For the gabled end walls, 
mark off a 10-by-6-inch rectangle. 
On each ten inch side, mark down 
6 inches from the top Make a 
mark at the middle of the top 6-inch 
side. Connect the dots, and cut 
on the angled I ines. 

Gingerbread . You need to cut out and 
bake the north roof section, the 
8x3- inch roof section, one side 
wall, both gabled ends, doors and 
shutters for any openings that 
you cut out in your patterns. 

Begin by making one recipe of 
gingerbread dough. Roll it out, and 
cut out as many pieces as you can 
squeeze on. It Is easiest to do 
dough rolling on the cookie sheet. 
Roll it to no less than 1/4 inch 
thick. Cut with patterns, using a 
sharp knife. Patterns pieces can 
be fitted right up against each 
other even while cooking. 

Refrigerate on cookie sheet 1 hour 
before baking. (This prevents the 
pieces from expanding,, If you are 
making your own pattern to replicate 
your home, this is crucial. You can 
cut pattern pieces as detailed as 


you wish c The pieces will remain 
exactly the size you planned them!) 
After baking and cooling five minutes, 
cut apart pieces with a sharp knife. 

Excess pieces of dough can be 
shaped into trees and shrubbery. 

Glazing (Glass for the Greenhouse) . 

Fol low the recipe very careful ly, 
being especially careful not to use 
too much butter or corn syrup! Place 
roof pattern piece 8-by5-inch, and 
side pattern on separate pieces 
of tinfoil. Bend up the edges of 
the tinfoi I around the edges of pat- 
terns to form a shallow little tray. 
Pour hot candy into each tray and 
let set. 

Decorat ing . The most fun is to have 
a family or family and friends party 
with plenty of gum drops, nuts, tiny 
candies, colored sugar and the 
like on hand. Simply spread a thin, 
flat layer of "snow" on the piece 
to be decorated, and go to it. We 
recommend black licorice strings for 
the top south roof piece (8-by-3-i nches) 
to simulate a solar collector. 

Let all pieces set overnight c Cover 
bowls of "cement" and "snow" with 
damp paper towl and plastic wrap 
and refrigerate overnights, 

Building the House You'll need 
a large flat tray or piece of 
styrofoam to build on. To put the 
house together, knead the decorator 
"cement" until like putty, then roll 
it under fingertips into pencil-like 
stips. Set up the north side wall 
with inside against one or two 
unopened fruit juice cans Q Press one 
strip of cement to the vertical 
edge of the wall. Press a gabled end 
at right angles to the cemented edge c 
Repeat with the remaining walls, and 
let set, using fruit juice cans for 
supporto Wait about 45 minutes 

Remove the fruit juice cans, and 
set the north roof section in place. 
Cement the top of the south roof 
(8x3- inches) to the north side 
along the ridge. Then set the 
"glazing portion" ( 5x8- inch) in 
place and cement at bottom of the 
south roof face. Let set. Finally, 
if you're building your home in 
winter, swirl as much "snow" frosting 
as you dare on roof and sides to 
simulate winter. 



The complete solar 
gingerbread house, glazing 
proudly oriented south. 



6 C sifted all-purpose flour 

4 tsp. ground ginger 

1 C butter or margarine 

1 C firmly packed light brown sugar 

1/2 C dark corn syrup 

1/2 C I Ight molasses 

Sift all-purpose flour before measuring. 
Measure 6 cups, then sift again with 
4 tsp. ground ginger into large bowl. 
In medium saucepan, combine 1 cup 
each butter or margarine and light 
brown sugar, firmly packed, 1/2 cup 
each corn syrup and molasses Heat 
over low heat, stirring occasionally 
until butter is melted. Stir into 
flour and ginger, then beat well 
until blended. Cool dough 5-10 minutes 

While still warm, for easief 
handling, roll out dough in sections 
on cookie sheets. Chill pieces for 
one hour. Make as many recipes as 
your pattern requires,. One recipe 
will build the greenhouse described 

Bake pieces 18-20 minutes Use an 

oven preheated to 375 Remove when 

edges are lightly browned or center 

is dry to touch. Small pieces (doors, 

shutters, landscaping) are likely to 

cook in as little as 5-8 minutes. 

If dough bubbles a bit during baking, 

smooth gently with a spatula after 

10 minutes. 

Cool each piece on a cookie sheet 

on wire rack for 5 minutes. Loosen 

carefully with a spatula, then remove 

to wire rack to cool complete I y a 


A design error! The strong 
sun I ight warps the 
of the greenhouse 





1 egg white 

1/8 tsp„ cream of tartar 

1 (16 oZo) pkg. confectioners sugar 

In medium bowl with electric mixer 
at medium speed, beat 1 egg white and 
cream of tartar until frothy Beat 
in sugar, a tablespoon at a time. Then 
beat until very stiff and mixture does 
not flow together when cut through 
with a knife. 


3 C sugar 

3/4 C I ight corn syrup 

3 Tbsp. v.ihegar 

1/3 C boi I ing water 

1/4 C butter or margarine 

dash salt 

Combine sugar, corn syrup, vinegar, 

water; stir until sugar dissolves 

Cook to hard crack stage (300 ). 

Remove from heat; add butter, salt. 

Cool till slightly thick, and then 

pour into prepared trays. Cool thoroughly, 

3 egg whites 

1/8 tsp. cream of tartar 
1 and 1/2 (16 oz.) pkg. confectioners 

Make as "cement" above. 



Quick repair as the 
glazing is removed, 
set on a warm oven 
top for an overnight 
meltdown, and replaced 
on roof. Fortunately, 
the house could be 
picked up and moved 
away from the window! 


Update. o o 


7-20-80o MOSCOW— Soviet authorities 
revoked the citizenship of Tatiana 
Mamonova, the founder of the USSR's 
first feminist journal, and expelled 
her and her family dissident sources 
and family friends said. 
Miss Mamonova, an editor of the 
underground pub I i cat ion "Women and 
Russia," was warned less than two 
weeks ago she faced harsh punishment 
unless she voluntarily left the 
Soviet Union. 

She refused and on Saturday, KGB agents 
informed her that she, her husband 
and their 4-year-old son would have 
to leave within 24 hours. 
"Women And Russia" first appeared 
in an underground edition of about 
a dozen typewritten copies. The 
almanac-style journal— a collection 
of articles, statements and poems 
addressing the problems of women In 
Soviet society— subsequently reached 
the West and was reprinted in a 
professionally published edition 
circulated from Paris. 
The journal took a strong position on 
women's rights in the U.S.S.R„, 
which it assailed as a thoroughly 
male-dominated society despite the 
Communist regime's traditional 
proclamations of complete equality 
between men and women. 

The second edition of "Women And Russia" 
was published in the spring and 
sources said a third edition was 
close to completion when the KGB 
moved against Miss Mamonova. 

"Sixteen year old Irish girl wins 
prize in Environmental Science" 

Sixteen year old Karen Ruddock 
recieved the top prize of $3,500 
for scientific research at the 
European Philips Contest for Young 
Scientists and Inventors being 
held in Amsterdam this week. 

Her subject — the influence 
of the environment on certain 
lichens — exemplifies a gradual 
shift over the 12 years of the 
contest from physical and tech- 
nological subjects to biological, 
chemical and ecological ones — 
perhaps a reflection of western 
society's growing concern about 
the cost of scientific progress. 

from the Holland Herald 




Environmentalists and ecologists 
have been criticized by their enemies 
(whose arguments are often transparent 
in their self-serving logic) for 
everything under the sun: they are 
elitist backpackers who don't care 
if the poor have jobs; they are 
inhuman nuts who put the snail-darter 
ahead of people; they are unrealistic 
romantics who believe that the sun, 
wind, tides, biomass and other forms 
of renewable energy can and must 
take the place of non-renewable, 
fossil fuel and noxious nuclear and 
synfuel concoctions. What is in 
fact the actual case? Ecology is 
that branch of biology that deals 
with the relations between living 
organisms and their environment; 
living organisms include the human 
animal; the environment includes 
man-made as well as natural conditions, 
We are all connectedo 

With this issue we begin the 
fourth year of publication of The 
Creative Woman . A pers i stent 
question, since our first issue, 
has been: is there a distinct woman's 
viewpoint on the matter at hand? In 
art, politics, literature, science, 
the question recurs. In our Spring 
1979 issue on Feminist Scholarship: 
An Intellectual Corrective, Harriet 
Gross wrote of the implications of 
androcentric (male-centered) bias 
in the biological sciences "in terms 
of formulating questions, evaluating 
evidence and rendering conclusions" 
and called the feminist challenge a 
true revolution which would shift us 
to a whole new way of thinking 
about our relationship to the 
envi ronment. 


The mother of the ecology movement, 
Rachel Carson, wrote in Si lent Spri ng, 
(1961) "The control of nature is a 
phrase conceived in arrogance, born 
of the Neanderthal age of biology and 
philosophy, when it was supposed that 
nature exists for the convenience of 
man " 

Anyone who knows Bethe Hagens ( who, 
with Joan Lewis, is guest editor of 
this issue) knows the incredible 
amount of energy, imagination, 
practical wisdom, indignation and 
humor that she has brought to her 
many activities on behalf of Appropri- 
ate Technology. She brought "Small 
is beautiful" Schumacher to Illinois. 
She, along with Jim Laukes, organized 
an enthralling two-day conference 
on Alternative Energy Sources, won a 
government grant to develop greater 
self-sufficiency among farmers in 
a small Illinois town by building 
a community greenhouse and published 
Acorn and Outlook . 

Clearly, the position of those of 
us who write, edit and publish The 
Creative Woman is YES, there is a 
distinct woman's point of view. 
Perhaps it has something to do with 
the fact that we are the "biological 
servants of the species" as Ashley 
Montagu has (admiringly) called 
us. Those who bear and nurture life 
with their very bodies provide a 
precious system of safeguards and 
warnings. They project themselves, 
literally, into the future of our 
specieSo They instinctively reject 
war, chemical poisons, nuclear 
solutions. It may have something to 
do with the unique experiences that 
we have had as women. Whatever it 
is, if it is so, then let us make 
the most of it» 

Women have been conspicuous in 
the Peace Movement, the Civil Rights 
and Human Rights Movements and the 
Ecology Movement,, It has even been 
suggested by Lucille Mair that women 
may provide the understanding re- 
quired to redress the gross social 
and economic imbalances that divide 
the industrialized Northern hemis- 

phere from the impoverished Southern 
hemisphere. How so? She is quoted 
in NEWSWEEKC July 14, 1980) as 
saying "Because the women in many 
societies in the North are in a 
subordinate role, they have the 
capacity to understand, perhaps even 
more than their menfolk, what the 
subordination of the South entails. 
Anyone who has been subjugated has 
the capacity to identify with the 
subjugation of others. Who knows, 
it may be the women of the North who 
will help the rest of the world 
understand the position of the South". 
Lucille Mair is a Jamaican feminist, 
historian, diplomat and the secretary- 
general of the United Nations Decade 
for Women. Her comments will recall 
for some the role played by Harriet 
Beecher Stowe and other abolitionist- 
feminists during and after the Civil 
War. Others will point out that 
identification with the victim is 
not a psychologically healthy basis 
for reform or renewal. We must go 
beyond identification with the victim! 
And yet others will say that it is 
the height of hubris for women to as- 
cribe to themselves such world-changing 
revolutionary powers. Let no one 
accuse us of overweening pride: We 
have taken to heart the words of the 
Ta I mud: 

It is not imcumbent upon me to 

A Note on the United Nations Decade of 
Women Conference 

As we go to press, I am leaving for 
Copenhagen to attend the conference, 
looking forward to an unprecedented 
opportunity to participate in a gather- 
ing of 1500 women from 150 countries. 
We shall review the world-wide status 
of women five years after the Inter- 
national Women's Year Conference in 
Mexico City. For starters, we are 
more than 51^ of the population, do 
two-thirds of the work, earn one- 
tenth of the income, and own one 
percent of the property, according 
to recently complied statistics,, My 
impressions will be reported in these 
pages in the Fall 1980 issue» 


Helen E. Hughes, Editor 


ink drawing 

by Andre Dunoyer de Segonzac 

(French, 1884-1974) 

Titled, "Isadora Duncan ".(undated) 

The Creative Woman acknowledges the 
contribution of Rose Kushner to our 
Spring 1980 issue, WOMEN AND PSYCHOLOGY: 
we reprinted the cover design of her 
brochure, "If you've thought about 
breast cancer". The brochure is 
available through this toll free 
number; (800) 638-6694 


b C om P°^ nH c5 


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